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Martin WF, Kleinermanns K: The Geochemical Origin of Microbes. CRC Press, Boca Raton FL (2024). doi: 10.1201/9781003378617

Belthle KS, Martin WF, Tüysüz H: Synergistic effects of silica-supported iron–cobalt catalysts for CO2 reduction to prebiotic organics. ChemCatChem e202301218 (2024). PDF

Mrnjavac N, Nagies FSP, Wimmer JL, Kapust N, Knopp MR, Trost K, Modjewski L, Bremer N, Mentel M, Degli Esposti MItzhak Mizrahi I, Allen JF, Martin WF: The radical impact of oxygen on prokaryotic evolution-enzyme inhibition first, uninhibited essential biosyntheses second, aerobic respiration third. FEBS Lett (2024). doi: 10.1002/1873-3468.14906 PDF

Brabender M, Henriques Pereira DP, Mrnjavac N, Schlikker ML, Kimura Z-I, Sucharitakul J, Kleinermanns K, Tüysüz H, Buckel W, Preiner M, Martin WF: Ferredoxin reduction by hydrogen with iron functions as an evolutionary precursor of flavin-based electron bifurcation. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 121:e2318969121 (2024). PDF

Kaur H, Rauscher SA, Werner E, Song Y, Yi J, Kazöne W, Martin WF, Tüysüz H, Moran J: A prebiotic Krebs cycle analog generates amino acids with H2 and NH3 over nickel. Chem 10:1–13 (2024). PDF

Moraïs S, Winkler S, Zorea A, Levin L, Nagies FSP, Kapust N, Lamed E, Artan-Furman A, Bolam DN, Yadav MP, Bayer EA, Martin WF, Mizrahi I: Cryptic diversity of cellulose-degrading gut bacteria in industrialized humans. Science 383:eadj9223 (2024). PDF



Schwander L, Brabender M, Mrnjavac N, Wimmer JLE, Preiner M, Martin WF: Serpentinization as the source of energy, electrons, organics, catalysts, nutrients and pH gradients for the origin of LUCA and life. Front Microbiol 14:1257597 (2023). PDF

Mrnjavac N, Wimmer JLE, Brabender M, Schwander L, Martin WF: The Moon-forming impact and the autotrophic origin of life. Chempluschem e202300270 (2023). PDF

Beyazay T, Martin WF,  Tüysüz H: Direct synthesis of formamide from CO2 and H2O with nickel–iron nitride heterostructures under mild hydrothermal conditions. J Am Chem Soc 145:19768–19779 (2023).  PDF

Raval PK, Martin WF, Gould SB: Mitochondrial evolution: Gene shuffling, endosymbiosis, and signaling. Sci Adv 9:eadj4493 (2023). PDF

Beyazay T, Ochoa-Hernández C, Song Y, Belthle KS, Martin WF,  Tüysüz H: Influence of composition of nickel‐iron nanoparticles for abiotic CO2 conversion to early prebiotic organics. Angew Chem e202218189 (2023). PDF

Bremer N,  Tria FDK,  Skejo J,  Martin WF: The ancestral mitotic state: Closed orthomitosis with intranuclear spindles in the syncytial last eukaryotic common ancestor. Genome Biol Evol evad016 (2023). PDF

Beyazay T, Belthle KS, Farès C, Preiner M, Moran J, Martin WF, Tüysüz H: Ambient temperature CO2 fixation to pyruvate and subsequently to citramalate over iron and nickel nanoparticles. Nat Commun 14:570 (2023). PDF



Belthle KS, Beyazay T, Ochoa-Hernández C, Miyazaki R, Foppa L, Martin WF, Tüysüz H: Effects of silica modification (Mg, Al, Ca, Ti, and Zr) on supported cobalt catalysts for H2-dependent CO2 reduction to metabolic intermediates. J Am Chem Soc 144:21232–21243 (2022). PDF

Song B, Modjewski LD, Kapust N, Mizrahi I, Martin WF: The origin and distribution of the main oxygen sensing mechanism across metazoans. Front Physiol 13:977391 (2022). PDF

Martin WF: Narrowing gaps between Earth and life. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 119:e2216017119 (2022). PDF

Fan L, Wu D, Goremykin V, Trost K, Knopp M, Zhang C, Martin WF, Zhu R: Reply to: Phylogenetic affiliation of mitochondria with alpha-II and rickettsiales is an artefact. Nat Ecol Evol 6:1832-1835 (2022). PDF

Subedi BP, Schofield LR, Carbone V, Wolf M, Martin WF, Ronimus RS, Sutherland-Smith AJ: Structural characterisation of methanogen pseudomurein cell wall peptide ligases homologous to bacterial MurE/F murein peptide ligases. Microbiology (Reading) 168 (2022). PDF

Bremer N, Knopp M, Martin WF, Tria FDK: Realistic gene transfer to gene duplication ratios identify different roots in the bacterial phylogeny using a tree reconciliation method. Life 12:995 (2022). PDF

Wimmer JLE, Martin WF: Origins as evolution of catalysts. Bunsen-Magazin 4:143–146 (2022). PDF

Bremer N, Tria FDK, Skejo J, Garg SG, Martin WF: Ancestral state reconstructions trace mitochondria but not phagocytosis to the last eukaryotic common ancestor. Genome Biol Evol 14:evac079 (2022). PDF

Hedlund BP, Zhang C, Wang F, Rinke C, Martin WF: Editorial: Ecology, metabolism and evolution of archaea-perspectives from proceedings of the International Workshop on Geo-Omics of Archaea. Front Microbiol 12:827229 (2022). PDF

Henriques Pereira DP, Leethaus J, Beyazay T, do Nascimento Vieira A, Kleinermanns K, Tüysüz H, Martin WF, Preiner M: Role of geochemical protoenzymes (geozymes) in primordial metabolism: Specific abiotic hydride transfer by metals to the biological redox cofactor NAD+. FEBS J 289:3148–3162 (2022). PDF




Wimmer JLE, Xavier JC, Vieira AdN, Pereira DPH, Leidner J, Sousa FL, Kleinermanns K, Preiner M, Martin WF: Energy at origins: Favorable thermodynamics of biosynthetic reactions in the last universal common ancestor (LUCA). Front Microbiol 12:793664 (2021). PDF

Wimmer JLE, Kleinermanns K, Martin WF: Pyrophosphate and irreversibility in evolution, or why PPi is not an energy currency and why nature chose triphosphates. Front Microbiol 12:759359 (2021). PDF

Tria FDK, Martin WF: Gene duplications are at least 50 times less frequent than gene transfers in prokaryotic genomes. Genome Biol Evol 13:evab224 (2021). PDF 

Subedi BP, Martin WF, Carbone V, Duin EC, Cronin B, Sauter J, Schofield LR, Sutherland-Smith AJ, Ronimus RS: Archaeal pseudomurein and bacterial murein cell wall biosynthesis share a common evolutionary ancestry. FEMS Microbes 2:xtab012 (2021). PDF

Martin WF, Nagies FSP, do Nascimento Vieira A: To what inanimate matter are we most closely related and does the origin of life harbor meaning? Philosophies 6:33 (2021). PDF

Skejo J, Garg SG, Gould SB, Hendriksen M, Tria FDK, Bremer N, Franjevic D, Blackstone NW, Martin WF: Evidence for a syncytial origin of eukaryotes from ancestral state reconstruction. Genome Biol Evol 13:evab096 (2021). PDF

Preiner M, Martin WF: Life in a carbon dioxide world. Nature 592:688–689 (2021). PDF

Xavier JC, Gerhards RE, Wimmer JLE, Brueckner J, Tria FDK, Martin WF: The metabolic network of the last bacterial common ancestor. Commun Biol 4:413 (2021). PDF

Tria FDK, Brueckner J, Skejo J, Xavier JC, Kapust N, Knopp M, Wimmer JLE, Nagies FSP, Zimorski V, Gould SB, Garg SG, Martin WF: Gene duplications trace mitochondria to the onset of eukaryote complexity. Genome Biol Evol 13:evab055 (2021). PDF

Wimmer JLE, do Nascimento Vieira A, Xavier JC, Kleinermanns K, Martin WF, Preiner M: The autotrophic core: An ancient network of 404 reactions converts H2, CO2, and NH3 into amino acids, bases, and cofactors. Microorganisms 9: 458 (2021). PDF

Kowallik KV, Martin WF: The origin of symbiogenesis: An annotated English translation of Mereschkowsky's 1910 paper on the theory of two plasma lineages. Biosystems 199:104281 (2021). PDF

Martin WF, Tielens AGM, Mentel M: Mitochondria and Anaerobic Energy Metabolism in Eukaryotes. DeGruyter, Berlin (2021). doi: 10.1515/9783110612417

Garg SG, Kapust N, Lin W, Knopp M, Tria FDK, Nelson-Sathi S, Gould SB, Fan L, Zhu R, Zhang C, Martin WF: Anomalous phylogenetic behavior of ribosomal proteins in metagenome assembled asgard archaea. Genome Biol Evol 13:evaa238 (2021). PDF 



Nagies FSP, Brueckner J, Tria  FDK, Martin  WF: A spectrum of verticality across genes. PLoS Genet 16:e1009200 (2020). PDF

Cunnane SC, Trushina E, Morland C, Prigione A, Casadesus G, Andrews ZB, Beal MF, Bergersen LH, Brinton RD, de la Monte S, Eckert A, Harvey J, Jeggo R, Jhamandas JH, Kann O, la Cour CM, Martin WF, Mithieux G, Moreira PI, Murphy MP, Nave KA, Nuriel T, Oliet SHR, Saudou F, Mattson MP, Swerdlow RH, Millan MJ: Brain energy rescue: An emerging therapeutic concept for neurodegenerative disorders of ageing. Nat Rev Drug Discov 19:609–633 (2020). PDF

Fan L, Wu D, Goremykin V, Xiao J, Xu Y, Garg S, Zhang C, Martin WF, Zhu R: Phylogenetic analyses with systematic taxon sampling show that mitochondria branch within Alphaproteobacteria. Nat Ecol Evol 4:1213–1219 (2020). PDF

Martin WF: Older than genes: The acetyl CoA pathway and origins. Front Microbiol 11:817 (2020). PDF

do Nascimento Vieira A, Kleinermanns K, Martin WF, Preiner M: The ambivalent role of water at the origins of life. FEBS Lett 594:2717–2733 (2020). PDF

Xavier JC, Hordijk W, Kauffman S, Steel M, Martin WF: Autocatalytic chemical networks at the origin of metabolism. Proc R Soc B 287:20192377 (2020). PDF

Brueckner J, Martin WF: Bacterial genes outnumber archaeal genes in eukaryotic genomes. Genome Biol Evol 12:282–292 (2020). PDF

Preiner M, Igarashi K, Muchowska KB, Yu M, Varma SJ, Kleinermanns K, Nobu MK, Kamagata Y, Tüysüz H, Moran J, Martin WF: A hydrogen-dependent geochemical analogue of primordial carbon and energy metabolism. Nat Ecol Evol 4:534–542 (2020). PDF

Orsi WD, Schink B, Buckel W, Martin WF: Physiological limits to life in anoxic subseafloor sediment. FEMS Microciol Rev 44:219–231(2020). PDF



Preiner M, Xavier JC, Vieira ADN, Kleinermanns K, Allen JF, Martin WF: Catalysts, autocatalysis and the origin of metabolism. Interface Focus 9:20190072 (2019). PDF

Allen JF, Thake B, Martin WF: Nitrogenase inhibition limited oxygenation of Earth’s Proterozoic atmosphere. Trends Plant Sci 24:1022–1031 (2019). PDF

Gould SB, Garg SG, Handrich M, Nelson-Sathi S, Gruenheit N, Tielens AGM, Martin WF: Adaptation to life on land at high O2 via transition from ferredoxin- to NADH-dependent redox balance. Proc Roy Soc Lond B 286:20191491 (2019). PDF

Zimorski V, Martin WF: The evolution of oxygen-independent energy metabolism in eukaryotes with hydrogenosomes and mitosomes. In: Hydrogenosomes and Mitosomes: Mitochondria of anaerobic eukaryotes. Springer Nature, Switzerland (2019). doi: 10.1007/978-3-030-17941-0_2

Wein T, Romero Picazo D, Blow F, Woehle C, Jami E, Reusch TBH, Martin WF, Dagan T: Currency, exchange, and inheritance in the evolution of symbiosis. Trends Microbiol 27:836–849 (2019). PDF

Martin WF: Carbon-metal bonds: Rare and primordial in metabolism. Trends Biochem Sci 44:807–818 (2019). PDF

Brunk CF, Martin WF: Archaeal histone contributions to the origin of eukaryotes. Trends Microbiol 27:703–714 (2019). PDF

Zimorski V, Mentel M, Tielens AGM, Martin WF: Energy metabolism in anaerobic eukaryotes and Earth's late oxygenation. Free Radic Biol Med 140:279–294 (2019). PDF

Degli Esposti M, Mentel M, Martin W, Sousa FL: Oxygen reductases in alphaproteobacterial genomes: Physiological evolution from low to high oxygen environments. Front Microbiol 10:499 (2019). PDF

Xavier JC, Martin WF: Sediment, methane and energy. Nat Microbiol 4:547–549 (2019). PDF

Sudianto E, Wu CS, Leonhard L, Martin WF, Chaw SM: Enlarged and high repetitive plastome of Lagarostrobos and plastid phylogenomics of Podocarpaceae. Mol Phylogenet Evol 133:24–32 (2019). PDF



Portugez S, Martin WF, Hazkani-Covo E: Mosaic mitochondrial-plastid insertions into the nuclear genome show evidence of both non-homologous end joining and homologous recombination. BMC Evol Biol 18:162 (2018). PDF

Bexkens ML, Zimorski V, Sarink MJ, Wienk H, Brouwers JF, De Jonckheere JF, Martin WF, Opperdoes FR, van Hellemond JJ, Tielens AGM: Lipids are the preferred substrate of the protist Naegleria gruberi, relative of a human brain pathogen. Cell Rep 25:537–543.E3 (2018). PDF

Gerlitz M, Knopp M, Kapust N, Xavier JC, Martin WF: Elusive data underlying debate at the prokaryote-eukaryote divide. Biol Direct 13:21 (2018). PDF

Preiner M, Xavier JC, Sousa FL, Zimorski V, Neubeck A, Lang SQ, Greenwell HC, Kleinermanns K, Tüysüz H, McCollom TM, Holm NG, Martin WF: Serpentinization: Connecting geochemistry, ancient metabolism and industrial hydrogenation. Life 8:41 (2018). PDF

Xavier JC, Preiner M, Martin WF: Something special about CO-dependent CO2 fixation. FEBS J 285:4181–4195 (2018). PDF

Barth C, Weiss MC, Roettger M, Martin WF, Unden G: Origin and phylogenetic relationships of [4Fe-4S]-containing O2-sensors of bacteria. Environ Microbiol 20:4567–4586 (2018). PDF

Weiss MC, Preiner M, Xavier JC, Zimorski V, Martin WF: The last universal common ancestor between ancient Earth chemistry and the onset of genetics. PLoS Genet 14:e1007518 (2018). PDF

Martin WF, Allen JF: An algal greening of land. Cell 174:256–258 (2018). PDF

Garg SG, Martin WF: Asking endosymbionts to do an enzymes's job. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 115:E4543–E4544 (2018). PDF

Kapust N, Nelson-Sathi S, Schönfeld B, Hazkani-Covo E, Bryant D, Lockhart PJ, Röttger M, Xavier JC, Martin WF: Failure to recover major events of gene flux in real biological data due to method misapplication. Genome Biol Evol 10:1198–1209 (2018). PDF

Martin WF: Eukaryote lateral gene transfer is Lamarckian. Nat Ecol Evol 2:754 (2018).  PDF

Sousa FL, Preiner M, Martin WF: Native metals, electron bifurcation, and CO2 reduction in early biochemical evolution. Curr Opin Microbiol 43:77–83 (2018). PDF

Martin WF, Bryant DA, Beatty JT: A physiological perspective on the origin and evolution of photosynthesis. FEMS Microbiol Rev 42: 205–231 (2018). PDF



Martin WF: Symbiogenesis, gradualism, and mitochondrial energy in eukaryote evolution. Period Biol 119:141–158 (2017). PDF

Martin WF: Too much eukaryote LGT. Bioessays 39 (2017). PDF

Rauch C, Jahns P, Tielens AGM, Gould SB, Martin WF: On being the right size as an animal with plastids. Front Plant Sci 8:1402 (2017). PDF

Martin WF, Preiner M: Origins of Life, Theories of. In: Reference Module in Life Sciences. Elsevier, Oxford (2017). doi: 10.1016/B978-0-12-809633-8.02403-1

Martin WF, Zimorski V, Weiss MC: Wo lebten die ersten Zellen – und wovon? Biologie in unserer Zeit 47:186–192 (2017). doi: 10.1002/biuz.201710622  

Martin WF, Tielens AGM, Mentel M, Garg SG, Gould SB: The physiology of phagocytosis in the context of mitochondrial origin. Microbiol Mol Biol Rev 81:e00008–e00017 (2017). PDF

Martin WF, Sies H: Physiological evolution: Genomic redox footprints. Nat Plants 3:17071 (2017). PDF

Martin WF: Unmiraculous facultative anaerobes (comment on DOI 10.1002/bies.201600174). Bioessays 39 (2017). PDF

Zimorski V, Rauch C, van Hellemond JJ, Tielens AGM, Martin WF: The mitochondrion of Euglena gracilis. In: Schwartzbach SD, Shigeoka S (eds.) Euglena: Biochemistry, Cell and Molecular Biology. Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology, Springer, Berlin, 979:19–37 (2017).   

Hazkani-Covo E, Martin WF: Quantifying the number of independent organelle DNA insertions in genome evolution and human health. Genome Biol Evol 9:1190–1203 (2017). PDF 

Martin WF: Going back in genes. The Biologist 64:20–23 (2017).

Martin WF, Thauer RK: Energy in ancient metabolism. Cell 168:953–955 (2017). PDF

Martin WF, Cerff R: Physiology, phylogeny, early evolution, and GAPDH. Protoplasma 254:1823–1834 (2017). PDF

Martin WF, Roettger M, Ku C, Garg SG, Nelson-Sathi S, Landan G: Late mitochondrial origin is an artifact. Genome Biol Evol 9:373–379 (2017). PDF

Martin WF: Physiology, anaerobes, and the origin of mitosing cells 50 years on. J Theor Biol 434:2–10 (2017). PDF



Martin WF: Physiology, phylogeny, and the energetic roots of life. Period Biol 118:343–352 (2016). PDF

Martin WF, Weiss MC, Neukirchen S, Nelson-Sathi S, Sousa FL: Physiology, phylogeny, and LUCA. Microb Cell 3:582–587 (2016). PDF

Weiss MC, Neukirchen S, Roettger M, Mrnjavac N, Nelson-Sathi S, Martin WF, Sousa FL: Reply to 'Is LUCA a thermophilic progenote?' Nat Microbiol 1:16230 (2016). PDF

Ku C, Martin WF: A natural barrier to lateral gene transfer from prokaryotes to eukaryotes revealed from genomes: The 70% rule. BMC Biol 14:89 (2016). PDF

Weiss MC, Sousa FL, Mrnjavac N, Neukirchen S, Roettger M, Nelson-Sathi S, Martin WF: The physiology and habitat of the last universal common ancestor. Nat Microbiol 1:16116 (2016). PDF

Garg SG, Martin WF: Mitochondria, the cell cycle, and the origin of sex via a syncytial eukaryote common ancestor. Genome Biol Evol 8:1950–1970 (2016). PDF

Martin WF, Neukirchen S, Zimorski V, Gould SB, Sousa FL: Energy for two: New archaeal lineages and the origin of mitochondria. Bioessays 38:850–856 (2016). PDF

Mentel M, Tielens AG, Martin WF: Animals, anoxic environments, and reasons to go deep. BMC Biol. 14:44 (2016). PDF

Sousa FL, Nelson-Sathi S, Martin WF: One step beyond a ribosome: The ancient anaerobic core. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1857:1027–1038 (2016). PDF

Sousa FL, Neukirchen S, Allen JF, Lane N, Martin WF: Lokiarchaeon is hydrogen dependent. Nat Microbiol 1:16034 (2016). PDF

Gould SB, Garg SG, Martin WF: Bacterial vesicle secretion and the evolutionary origin of the eukaryotic endomembrane system. Trends Microbiol 24:525–534 (2016). PDF

Garg S, Zimorski V, Martin WF: Endosymbiotic Theory. In: Kliman RM (ed.) The Encyclopedia of Evolutionary Biology, Vol. 1. Academic Press, Oxford, pp. 511–517 (2016). PDF

Chen X, Schreiber K, Appel J, Makowka A, Faehnrich B, Roettger M, Hajirezaei MR, Sönnichsen F, Schönheit P, Martin WF, Gutekunst K: The Entner-Doudoroff pathway is an overlooked glycolytic route in cyanobacteria and plants. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 113:5441–5446 (2016). PDF

Allen JF, Martin WF: Why have organelles retained genomes? Cell Systems 2:70–72 (2016). PDF

Horneck G, Walter N, Westall F, Grenfell JL, Martin WF, Gomez F, Leuko S, Lee N, Onofri S, Tsiganis K, Saladino R, Pilat-Lohinger E, Palomba E, Harrison J, Rull F, Muller C, Strazzulla G, Brucato JR, Rettberg P, Capria MT: AstRoMap European Astrobiology Roadmap. Astrobiology 16:201–243 (2016). PDF

Lane N, Martin WF: Mitochondria, complexity, and evolutionary deficit spending. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 113:E666 (2016). PDF

Schönheit P, Buckel W, Martin WF: On the origin of heterotrophy. Trends Microbiol 24:12–25 (2016). PDF

Martin WF, Sousa FL: Early microbial evolution: The age of anaerobes. Cold Spring Harb Perspect Biol 8:a018127 (2016). PDF



Nelson-Sathi S, Martin WF: The origin of a killer revealed by bronze age Yersinia genomes. Cell Host Microbe 18:513–514 (2015). PDF

Garg S, Stölting J, Zimorski V, Rada P, Tachezy J, Martin WF, Gould SB: Conservation of transit peptide-independent protein import into the mitochondrial and hydrogenosomal matrix. Genome Biol Evol 7:2716–2726 (2015). PDF

Lane N, Martin WF: Eukaryotes really are special, and mitochondria are why. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 112:E4823 Letter (2015). PDF

Carbone V, Schofield LR, Zhang Y, Sang C, Dey D, Hannus IM, Martin WF, Sutherland-Smith AJ, Ronimus RS: Structure and evolution of the archaeal lipid synthesis enzyme sn-glycerol-1-phosphate dehydrogenase. J Biol Chem 290:21690–21704. PDF 

Ku C, Nelson-Sathi S, Roettger M, Sousa FL, Lockhart PJ, Bryant D, Hazkani-Covo E, McInerney JO, Landan G, Martin WF: Endosymbiotic origin and differential loss of eukaryotic genes. Nature 524:427–432 (2015). PDF

Baross JA, Martin WF: The ribofilm as a concept for life's origins. Cell 162:13–15 (2015). PDF

Rajevic N, Kovacevic G, Kalafatic M, Gould SB, Martin WF, Franjevic D: Algal endosymbionts in European Hydra strains reflect multiple origins of the zoochlorella symbiosis. Mol Phylog Evol 93:55–62 (2015). PDF

Gould SB, Maier U-G, Martin WF: Protein import and the origin of red complex plastids. Curr Biol 25:R515–R521 (2015). PDF

Martin W, Garg S, Zimorski V: Endosymbiotic theories for eukaryote origin. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B 370:20140330 (2015). PDF

Ku C, Nelson-Sathi S, Roettger M, Garg S, Hazkani-Covo E, Martin WF: Endosymbiotic gene transfer from prokaryotic pangenomes: Inherited chimerism in eukaryotes. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 112:10139–10146 (2015). PDF

Sousa FL, Hordijk, W, Steel M, Martin WF: Autocatalytic sets in E. coli metabolism. J Systems Chem 6:4. (2015). PDF

Martin WF, Neukirchen S, Sousa FL: Early life. In: Bakermans C (ed.) Microbial Evolution under Extreme Conditions. Walter de Gruyter, Berlin/Munich/Boston, pp. 171–184 (2015). PDF

Yu R-Y, Martin WF: Symbiotic associations: All about chemistry. In: Hurst C (ed.) The Mechanistic Benefits of Microbial Symbionts. Springer, New York, pp. 3–11 (2015).  

Nelson-Sathi S, Sousa FL, Roettger M, Lozada-Chávez N, Thiergart T, Janssen A, Bryant D, Landan G, Schönheit P, Siebers B, McInerney JO, Martin WF: Origins of major archaeal clades correspond to gene acquisitions from bacteria. Nature 517:77–80 (2015). PDF



Ku C, Roettger, M, Zimorski V, Nelson-Sathi S, Sousa FL, Martin WF: Plastid origin: Who, when and why? Acta Soc Bot Pol 83:281–289 (2014). PDF

Thiergart T, Landan G, Martin WF: Concatenated alignments and the case of the disappearing tree. BMC Evol Biol 14:266 (2014). PDF

Zimorski V, Ku C, Martin WF, Gould SB: Endosymbiotic theory for organelle origins. Curr Opin Microbiol 22:38–48 (2014). PDF

Dagan T, Bapteste E, McInerney JO, Martin WF: Meeting report – SMBE satellite meeting on reticulated microbial evolution. Genome Biol Evol 6:2206–2209 (2014). PDF

Mentel M, Röttger M, Leys S, Tielens AGM, Martin WF: Of early animals, anaerobic mitochondria, and a modern sponge. BioEssays 36:924–932 (2014). PDF

Thiergart T, Schmitz U, Landan G, Martin WF, Dagan T: Application and comparative performance of network modularity algorithms to ecological community classification. Acta Soc Bot Pol 83:93–102 (2014). PDF

Christa G, Gould SB, Franken J, Vleugels M, Karmeinski D, Händeler K, Martin WF, Wägele H: Functional kleptoplasty in a limapontioidean genus: Phylogeny, food preferences and photosynthesis in Costasiella with a focus on C. ocellifera (Gastropoda, Sacoglossa). J Mollus Stud 80:499–507 (2014). PDF

List J-M, Nelson-Sathi S, Martin WF, Geisler H: Using phylogenetic networks to model Chinese dialect history. LDC 4:222–252 (2014). PDF

Martin WF, Sousa FL, Lane N: Energy at life's origin. Science 344:1092–1093 (2014). PDF

Sousa FL, Martin WF: Biochemical fossils of the ancient transition from geoenergetics to bioenergetics in prokaryotic one carbon compound metabolism. Biochim Biophys Acta 1837:964–981 (2014). PDF

Schmitt V, Händeler K, Gunkel S, Escande M-L, Menzel D, Gould SB, Martin WF, Wägele H: Chloroplast incorporation and long-term photosynthetic performance through the life cycle in laboratory cultures of Elysia timida (Sacoglossa, Heterobranchia). Front Zool 11:5 (2014)PDF

List J-M, Nelson-Sathi S, Geisler H, Martin W: Networks of lexical borrowing and lateral gene transfer in language and genome evolution. BioEssays 36:141–150 (2014). PDF

Christa G, Zimorski V, Woehle C, Tielens AGM, Wägele H, Martin WF, Gould SB: Plastid-bearing sea slugs fix CO2 in the light but do not require photosynthesis to survive. Proc R Soc Lond B 281:20132493 (2014). PDF

Wägele H, Martin WF: Endosymbioses in sacoglossan seaslugs: Plastid-bearing animals that keep stolen plastids without borrowing genes. In: Löffelhardt W (ed.) Endosymbiosis. Springer Berlin Heidelberg. pp. 291–324 (2014).

Zimorski V, Martin WF: Subcellular targeting of proteins and  pathways during evolution. New Phytol 201:1–2 (2014). PDF



de Vries J, Habicht J, Woehle C, Changjie H, Christa G, Wägele H, Nickelsen J, Martin WF, Gould SB: Is ftsH the key to plastid longevity in sacoglossan slugs? Genome Biol Evol 5:2540–2548 (2013). PDF

Maier U-G, Zauner S, Woehle C, Bolte K, Hempel F, Allen JF, Martin WF: Massively convergent evolution for ribosomal protein gene content in plastid and mitochondrial genomes. Genome Biol Evol 5:2318–2329 (2013)PDF

Zimorski V, Major P, Hoffmann K, Pereira Brás X, Martin WF, Gould SB: The N-terminal sequences of four major hydrogenosomal proteins are not essential for import into hydrogenosomes of Trichomonas vaginalis. J Eukaryot Microbiol 60:89–97 (2013). PDF

Martin WF: Endosymbiosis and the evolution of complexity. The Biochemist 35:4–8 (2013).

Martin W, Lane N, Schmitt V: Der Schritt zum komplexen Leben. Spektrum der Wissenschaft Juli-Ausgabe 41–45 (2013).

Gould SB, Woehle C, Kusdian G, Landan G, Tachezy J, Zimorski V, Martin WF: Deep sequencing of Trichomonas vaginalis during the early infection of vaginal epithelial cells and amoeboid transition. Int J Parasitol 43:707–719 (2013). PDF

Kusdian G, Woehle C, Martin WF, Gould SB: The actin-based machinery of Trichomonas vaginalis mediates flagellate-amoeboid transition and migration across host tissue. Cell Microbiol 15:1707–1721 (2013). PDF 

Lane N, Martin WF, Raven JA, Allen JF: Energy, genes and evolution: Introduction to an evolutionary synthesis. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B 368:20120253 (2013). PDF 

Sousa FL, Thiergart T, Landan G, Nelson-Sathi S, Pereira IAC, Allen JF, Lane N, Martin WF: Early bioenergetic evolution. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B 368:20130088 (2013). PDF

Brás XP, Zimorski V, Bolte K, Maier U-G, Martin WF, Gould SB: Knockout of the abundant Trichomonas vaginalis hydrogenosomal membrane protein Tvhmp23 increases hydrogenosome size but induces no compensatory up-regulation of paralogous copies. FEBS Lett 587:1333–1339 (2013). PDF

Sousa FL, Shavit-Grievink L, Allen JF, Martin WF: Chlorophyll biosynthesis gene evolution indicates photosystem gene duplication, not photosystem merger, at the origin of oxygenic photosynthesis. Genome Biol Evol 5:200–216 (2013). PDF 

Dagan T, Roettger M, Stucken K, Landan G, Koch R, Major P, Gould SB, Goremykin VV, Rippka R, Tandeau de Marsac N, Gugger M, Lockhart PJ, Allen JF, Brune I, Maus I, Pühler A, Martin WF: Genomes of stigonematalean cyanobacteria (Subsection V) and the evolution of oxygenic photosynthesis from prokaryotes to plastids. Genome Biol Evol 5:31–44 (2013). PDF

Nelson-Sathi S, Popa O, List JM, Geisler H, Martin WF, Dagan T: Reconstructing the lateral component of language history and genome evolution using network approaches. In: Fangerau H, Geisler H, Halling T, Martin WF (eds.): Classifiation and Evolution in Biology, Linguistics and the history of Science. Concepts-Methods-Visualization. Steiner, Stuttgart pp 163–180 (2013).

Atteia A, van Lis R, Tielens AGM, Martin WF: Anaerobic energy metabolism in unicellular photosynthetic eukaryotes. Biochim Biophys Acta 1827:210–223 (2013). PDF

Goremykin VV, Nikiforova SV, Biggs PJ, Zhong B, Delange P, Martin W, Woetzel S, Atherton RA, McLenachan PA, Lockhart PJ: The evolutionary root of flowering plants. Syst Biol 62:50–61 (2013). PDF  

Fangerau J, Geisler H, Halling T, Martin W (eds.): Classification and Evolution in Biology, Linguistics and the History of Science. Concepts – Methods – Visualization. 198 pp. Steiner Verlag, Stuttgart (2013).



Martin WF: Hydrogen, metals, bifurcating electrons, and proton gradients: The early evolution of biological energy conservation. FEBS Lett 586:485–493 (2012). PDF

Lane N, Martin WF: The origin of membrane bioenergetics. Cell 151:1406–1416 (2012). PDF

Nelson-Sathi S, Dagan T, Landan G, Janssen A, Steel M, McInerney JO, Deppenmeier U, Martin WF: Acquisition of 1,000 eubacterial genes physiologically transformed a methanogen at the origin of Haloarchaea. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 109:20537–20542 (2012). PDF

Martin WF, Roettger M, Kloesges T, Thiergart T, Woehle C, Gould SB, Dagan T: Modern endosymbiotic theory: Getting lateral gene transfer into the equation. J Endocytobiosis Cell Res 23:1–5 (2012). PDF

Martin WF, Hazkani-Covo E, Shavit-Grievink L, Schmitt V, Händeler K, Gould SB, Landan G, Graur D, Dagan T: Gene transfers from organelles to the nucleus: How much, what happens, and why none in Elysia. J Endocytobiosis Cell Res 23:16–20 (2012). PDF

Zimorski V, Major P, Yu R-Y, Hoffmann K, Pereira Brás X, Tucci S, Mentel M, Gould SB, Henze K, Martin WF: Evolutionary significance of anaerobic energy metabolism in eukaryotes. J Endocytobiosis Cell Res 23:64–68 (2012). PDF  

Martin WF: Das Leben als kompartimentierte chemische Reaktion. Nova Acta Leopoldina 394:69–95 (2012).

Stucken K, Ilhan J, Roettger M, Dagan T, Martin WF: Transformation and conjugal transfer of foreign genes into the filamentous multicellular cyanobacteria (subsection V) Fischerella and Chlorogloepsis. Curr Microbiol 65:552–560 (2012). PDF

Pesole G, Allen JF, Lane N, Martin W, Rand DM, Schatz G, Saccone C: The neglected genome. EMBO Rep 13:473–474 (2012). PDF

Müller M, Mentel M, van Hellemond JJ, Henze K, Woehle C, Gould SB, Yu R-Y, van der Giezen M, Tielens AGM, Martin WF: Biochemistry and evolution of anaerobic energy metabolism in eukaryotes. Microbiol Mol Biol Rev 76:444–495 (2012). PDF

Thiergart T, Landan G, Schenk M, Dagan T, Martin WF: An evolutionary network of genes present in the eukaryote common ancestor polls genomes on eukaryotic and mitochondrial origin. Genome Biol Evol 4:466–485 (2012). PDF

Burstein D, Gould SB, Zimorski V, Kloesges T, Kiosse F, Major P, Martin WF, Pupko T, Dagan T: A machine learning approach to identify hydrogenosomal proteins in Trichomonas vaginalis. Eukaryot Cell 11:217–228 (2012). PDF



McInerney JO, Martin W, Koonin EV, Allen JF, Galperin MY, Lane N, Archibald JM, Embley TM: On planctomycetes, eukaryotes and analogy. Science E-Letter, 25 May 2011. Link

Woehle C, Dagan T, Martin WF, Gould SB: Red and problematic green phylogenetic signals among thousands of nuclear genes from the photosynthetic and apicomplexa-related Chromera velia. Genome Biol Evol 3:1220–1230 (2011). PDF

Abdel-Basset R, Friedl T, Mohr KI, Rybalka N, Martin W: High growth rate, photosynthesis rate and increased hydrogen(ases) in manganese deprived cells of a newly isolated Nostoc-like cyanaobacterium (SAG 2306). Int J Hydrog Energ 36:12200–12210 (2011). PDF

McInerney JO, Martin WF, Koonin EV, Allen JF, Galperin MY, Lane N, Archibald JM, Embley TM: Planctomycetes and eukaryotes: A case of analogy not homology. BioEssays 33:810–817 (2011). PDF

Martin W: Early evolution without a tree of life. Biol Direct 6:36 (2011). PDF

Popa O, Hazkani-Covo E, Landan G, Martin W, Dagan T: Directed networks reveal genomic barriers and DNA repair bypasses to lateral gene transfer among prokaryotes. Genome Res 21:599–609 (2011). PDF

Felsner G, Sommer MS, Gruenheit N, Hempel F, Moog D, Zauner S, Martin W, Maier U-G: ERAD components in organisms with complex red plastids suggest recruitment of a preexisting protein transport pathway for the periplastid membrane. Genome Biol Evol 3:140–150 (2011). PDF

Nelson-Sathi S, List JM, Geisler H, Fangerau H, Gray RD, Martin W, Dagan T: Networks uncover hidden lexical borrowing in Indo-European language evolution. Proc R Soc Lond B 278:1794–803 (2011). PDF

Kloesges T, Popa O, Martin W, Dagan T: Networks of gene sharing among 329 proteobacterial genomes reveal differences in lateral gene transfer frequency at different phylogenetic depths. Mol Biol Evol 28:1057–1074 (2011). PDF

Wägele H, Deusch O, Händeler K, Martin R, Schmitt V, Christa G, Pinzger B, Gould SB, Dagan T, Klussmann-Kolb A, Martin W: Transcriptomic evidence that longevity of acquired plastids in the photosynthetic slugs Elysia timida and Plakobranchus ocellatus does not entail lateral transfer of algal nuclear genes. Mol Biol Evol 28:699–706 (2011). PDF



Martin W, Mentel M: The origin of mitochondria. Nature Education 3:58 (2010). link

Lane N, Martin W: The energetics of genome complexity. Nature 467:929–934 (2010). PDF

O’Malley M, Martin W, Dupré J: The tree of life: Introduction to an evolutionary debate. Biol Philos 25:441–453 (2010). PDF

Dagan T, Roettger M, Bryant D, Martin W: Genome networks root the tree of life between prokaryotic domains. Genome Biol Evol 2:379–392 (2010). PDF

Russell MJ, Hall AJ, Martin W: Serpentinization as a source of energy at the origin of life. Geobiology 8:355–371 (2010).  PDF

Mentel M, Martin W: Anaerobic animals from an ancient, anoxic ecological niche. BMC Biol 8:32 [6 pages] (2010). PDF

Lane N, Allen JF, Martin W: How did LUCA make a living? Chemiosmosis in the origin of life. BioEssays 32:271–280 (2010). PDF

Tielens AGM, van Grinsven KWA, Henze K, van Hellemond JJ, Martin W: Acetate formation in the energy metabolism of parasitic helminths and protists. Int J Parasitol 40:387–397 (2010). PDF

Ahmadinejad N, Dagan T, Gruenheit N, Martin W, Gabaldón T: Evolution of spliceosomal introns following endosymbiotic gene transfer. BMC Evol Biol 10:57 (2010). PDF

Hazkani-Covo E, Zeller RM, Martin W: Molecular poltergeists: Mitochondrial DNA copies (numts) in sequenced nuclear genomes. PLoS Genet 6:e1000834 (2010). PDF

Tucci S, Vacula R, Krajcovic J, Proksch P, Martin W: Variability of wax ester fermentation in natural and bleached Euglena gracilis strains in response to oxygen and the elongase inhibitor flufenacet. J Eukaryot Microbiol 57:63–69 (2010). PDF

Martin W: Evolutionary origins of metabolic compartmentalization in eukaryotes. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B 365:847–855 (2010). PDF

Kilian B, Martin W, Salamini F: Genetic diversity, evolution and domestication of wheat and barley in the fertile crescent. In: Glaubrecht M (ed.) Evolution in Action. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg. pp. 137–166 (2010).



Bapteste E, O'Malley MA, Beiko RG, Ereshefsky M, Gogarten JP, Franklin-Hall L, Lapointe F-J, Dupré J, Dagan T, Boucher Y, Martin W: Prokaryotic evolution and the tree of life are two different things. Biol Direct 4:34 (2009). PDF

Dagan T, Martin W: Seeing green and red in diatom genomes. Science 324:1651–1652 (2009). PDF

Martin W: Hydrothermalquellen und der Ursprung des Lebens. Biologie in unserer Zeit 39:166–174 (2009). PDF

Ma Y, Jakowitsch J, Deusch O, Henze K, Martin W, Löffelhardt W: Transketolase from Cyanophora paradoxaIn vitro import into cyanelles and pea chloroplasts and a complex history of a gene often, but not always, transferred in the context of secondary endosymbiosis. J Eukaryot Microbiol 56:568–576 (2009). PDF

Roettger M, Martin W, Dagan T: A machine-learning approach reveals that alignment properties alone can accurately predict inference of lateral gene transfer from discordant phylogenies. Mol Biol Evol 26:1931–1939 (2009). PDF

Dagan T, Martin W: Getting a better picture of microbial evolution en route to a network of genomes. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B 364:2187–2196 (2009). PDF

Atteia A, Adrait A, Brugière S, Tardif M, van Lis R, Deusch O, Dagan T, Kuhn L, Gontero B, Martin W, Garin J, Joyard J, Rolland N: A proteomic survey of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii mitochondria sheds new light on the metabolic plasticity of the organelle and on the nature of the alpha-proteobacterial mitochondrial ancestor. Mol Biol Evol 26:1533–1548 (2009). PDF

Vesteg M, Vacula R, Burey S, Löffelhardt W, Drahovská H, Martin W, Krajcovic J: Expression of nucleus-encoded genes for chloroplast proteins in the flagellate Euglena gracilisJ Eukaryot Microbiol 56:159–166 (2009). PDF



Martin W, Baross J, Kelley D, Russell MJ: Hydrothermal vents and the origin of life. Nature Rev Microbiol 6:805–814 (2008). PDF

Mentel M, Zimorski V, Haferkamp P, Martin W, Henze K: Protein import into hydrogenosomes of Trichomonas vaginalis involves both N-terminal and internal targeting signals: A case study of thioredoxin reductases. Eukaryot Cell 7:1750–1757 (2008). PDF

Theissen U, Martin W: Sulfide:quinone oxidoreductase (SQR) from the lugworm Arenicola marina shows cyanide- and thioredoxin-dependent activity. FEBS J 275:1131–1139 (2008). PDF

Dagan T, Artzy-Randrup Y, Martin W: Modular networks and cumulative impact of lateral transfer in prokaryote genome evolution. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 105:10039–10044 (2008). PDF

Gruenheit N, Lockhart PJ, Steel M, Martin W: Difficulties in testing for covarion-like properties of sequences under the confounding influence of changing proportions of variable sites. Mol Biol Evol 25:1512–1520 (2008). PDF

Mentel M, Martin W: Energy metabolism among eukaryotic anaerobes in light of Proterozoic ocean chemistry. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B 363:2717–2729 (2008). PDF

Martin W: Anaerobic eukaryotes in pursuit of phylogenetic normality: The evolution of hydrogenosomes and mitosomes. In: Tachezy J (ed.) Hydrogenosomes and mitosomes: mitochondria of anaerobic eukaryotes. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg. pp. 1–20 (2008).

Deusch O, Landan G, Roettger M, Gruenheit N, Kowallik KV, Allen JF, Martin W, Dagan T: Genes of cyanobacterial origin in plant nuclear genomes point to a heterocyst-forming plastid ancestor. Mol Biol Evol 25:748–761 (2008). PDF

Theissen U, Martin W: Biochemical and evolutionary aspects of eukaryotes that inhabit sulfidic environments. In: Dahl C, Friedrich CG (eds.) Microbial Sulfur Metabolism. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg. pp. 36–45 (2008).

van Grinsven KWA, Rosnowsky S, van Weelden SWH, Pütz S, van der Giezen M, Martin W, van Hellemond JJ, Tielens AGM, Henze K: Acetate:succinate CoA-transferase in the hydrogenosomes of Trichomonas vaginalis: Identification and characterization. J Biol Chem 283:1411–1418 (2008). PDF

Basu MK, Rogozin IB, Deusch O, Dagan T, Martin W, Koonin EV: Evolutionary dynamics of introns in plastid-derived genes in plants: Saturation nearly reached but slow intron gain continues. Mol Biol Evol 25:111–119 (2008). PDF

Martin W: On the ancestral state of microbial physiology. In: Amann R, Goebel W, Schink B, Widdel F (eds.) Life Strategies of Microorganisms in the Environment and in Host Organisms. Nova Acta Leopoldina 96:53–60 (2008).



Kilian B, Özkan H, Walther A, Kohl J, Dagan T, Salamini F, Martin W: Molecular diversity at 18 loci in 321 wild and 92 domesticate lines reveal no reduction of nucleotide diversity during Triticum monococcum (Einkorn) domestication: Implications for the origin of agriculture. Mol Biol Evol 24:2657–2668 (2007). PDF

Esser C, Martin W: Supertrees and symbiosis in eukaryote genome evolution. Trends Microbiol 15:435–437 (2007). PDF

Martin W, Dagan T, Henze K: Archaebacteria and the prokaryote-to-eukaryote transition (and the role of mitochondria therein). In: Brown JR (ed.) Cpmparative genomics – Basic and applied research. CRC Press Boca Raton FL. pp 75–88 (2007).

Martin W, Roettger M, Lockhart PJ: A reality check for alignments and trees. Trends Genet 23:478–480 (2007). PDF

Ahmadinejad N, Dagan T, Martin W: Genome history in the symbiotic hybrid Euglena gracilis. Gene 402:35–39 (2007). PDF

Dagan T, Martin W: Testing hypotheses without considering predictions. BioEssays 29:500–503 (2007). PDF

Martin W, Dagan T, Koonin EV, Dipippo JL, Gogarten JP, Lake JA: The evolution of eukaryotes. Science 316:542–543 (2007). PDF

Tucci S, Martin W: A novel prokaryotic trans-2-enoyl-CoA reductase from the spirochete Treponema denticolaFEBS Lett 581:1561–1566 (2007). PDF

Allen JF, Martin W: Evolutionary biology: Out of thin air. Nature 445:610–612 (2007). PDF

Dagan T, Martin W: Ancestral genome sizes specify the minimum rate of lateral gene transfer during prokaryote evolution. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 104:870–875 (2007). PDF

Winkler C, Delvos B, Martin W, Henze K: Purification, microsequencing and cloning of spinach ATP-dependent phosphofructokinase link sequence and function for the plant enzyme. FEBS J 274:429–438 (2007). PDF

Esser C, Martin W, Dagan T: The origin of mitochondria in light of a fluid prokaryotic chromosome model. Biol Lett 3:180–184 (2007). PDF

Martin W, Russell MJ: On the origin of biochemistry at an alkaline hydrothermal vent. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B 362:1887–1925 (2007). PDF

Kilian B, Özkan H, Deusch O, Effgen S, Brandolini A, Kohl J, Martin W, Salamini F: Independent wheat B and G genome origins in outcrossing Aegilops progenitor haplotypes. Mol Biol Evol 24:217–227 (2007). PDF

Nakamura Y, Itoh T, Martin W: Rate and polarity of gene fusion and fission in Oryza sativa and Arabidopsis thalianaMol Biol Evol 24:110–121 (2007). PDF

Tucci S, Proksch P, Martin W: Fatty acid biosynthesis in mitochondria of Euglena gracilis. In: Benning C, Ohlrogge J (eds.) Current Advances in the Biochemistry and Cell Biology of Plant Lipid: Proceedings of the 17th International Symposium of Plant Lipids. Aardvark Global Publishing Company, LLC Salt Lake City UT. pp. 133–136 (2007). 

Martin W: Eukaryote and mitochondrial origins: Two sides of the same coin and too much ado about oxygen. In: Falkowski PG, Knoll AH (eds.) Evolution of primary producers in the sea. Elsevier Amsterdam. pp. 55–73 (2007).

Martin WF, Müller M (eds.): Origin of mitochondria and hydrogenosomes. Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 316 pp. (2007).



Theissen U, Martin W: The difference between organelles and endosymbionts. Curr Biol 16:R1016–R1017 (2006). PDF

Dagan T, Martin W: The tree of one percent. Genome Biol 7:118 [7 pages] (2006). PDF

Martin W: Konstantin Mereschkowskii und der Ursprung des Zellkerns: Zuviel einer guten Idee? In: Geus A, Höxtermann E (eds.) Evolution durch Kooperation und Integration. Basilisken-Presse Marburg pp. 699–719 (2006).

Martin W, Koonin EV: A positive definition of prokaryotes. Nature 442:868 (2006). PDF

Kilian B, Özkan H, Kohl J, von Haeseler A, Barale F, Deusch O, Brandolini A, Yucel C, Martin W, Salamini F: Haplotype structure at seven barley genes: Relevance to gene pool bottlenecks, phylogeny of ear type and site of barley domestication. Mol Genet Genomics 276:230–241 (2006). PDF

Atteia A, van Lis R, Gelius-Dietrich G, Adrait A, Garin J, Joyard J, Rolland N, Martin W: Pyruvate formate-lyase and a novel route of eukaryotic ATP synthesis in Chlamydomonas mitochondriaJ Biol Chem 281:9909–9918 (2006). PDF

Embley TM, Martin W: Eukaryotic evolution, changes and challenges. Nature 440:623–630 (2006). PDF

Martin W, Koonin EV: Introns and the origin of nucleus-cytosol compartmentalization. Nature 440:41–45 (2006). PDF

Torrents E, Trevisiol C, Rotte C, Hellman U, Martin W, Reichard P: Euglena gracilis ribonucleotide reductase: The eukaryote class II enzyme and the possible antiquity of eukaryote B12-dependence. J Biol Chem 281:5604–5611 (2006). PDF



Martin W: Archaebacteria (Archaea) and the origin of the eukaryotic nucleus. Curr Opin Microbiol 8:630–637 (2005). PDF

Koonin EV, Martin W: On the origin of genomes and cells within inorganic compartments. Trends Genet. 21:647–654 (2005). PDF

Martin W: The missing link between hydrogenosomes and mitochondria. Trends Microbiol 13:457–459 (2005). PDF

Huang CY, Grünheit N, Ahmadinejad N, Timmis JN, Martin W: Mutational decay and age of chloroplast and mitochondrial genomes transferred recently to angiosperm nuclear chromosomes. Plant Physiol 138:1723–1733 (2005). PDF

Martin W: Lateral gene transfer and other possibilities. Heredity 94:565–566 (2005). PDF

Martin W: Getting a better picture of evolution. Environ Microbiol 7:479–480 (2005). PDF

Martin W, Deusch O, Stawski N, Grünheit N, Goremykin V: Chloroplast genome phylogenetics: Why we need independent approaches to plant molecular evolution. Trends Plant Sci 10:203–209 (2005). PDF

Hoffmeister M, Piotrowski M, Nowitzki U, Martin W: Mitochondrial trans-2-enoyl-CoA reductase of wax ester fermentation from Euglena gracilis defines a new family of enzymes involved in lipid synthesis. J Biol Chem 280:4329–4338 (2005). PDF

Martin W: Woe is the Tree of Life. In: Sapp J (ed.) Microbial Phylogeny and Evolution: Concepts and controversies. Oxford University Press New York. pp. 134–153. (2005). 



Martin W, Embley TM: Early evolution comes full circle. Nature 431:134–137 (2004). PDF

Nowitzki U, Gelius-Dietrich G, Schwieger M, Henze K, Martin W: Chloroplast phosphoglycerate kinase from Euglena gracilis: Endosymbiotic gene replacement going against the tide. Eur J Biochem 271:4123–4131 (2004). PDF

Trenkamp S, Martin W, Tietjen K: Specific and differential inhibition of very-long-chain fatty acid elongases from Arabidopsis thaliana by different herbicides. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 101:11903–11908 (2004). PDF

Russell MJ, Martin W: The rocky roots of the acetyl-CoA pathway. Trends Biochem Sci 29:358–363 (2004). PDF

Hoffmeister M, van der Klei A, Rotte C, van Grinsven KWA, van Hellemond JJ, Henze K, Tielens AGM, Martin W: Euglena gracilis rhodoquinone:ubiquinone ratio and mitochondrial proteome differ under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. J Biol Chem 279:22422–22429 (2004). PDF

Esser C, Ahmadinejad N, Wiegand C, Rotte C, Sebastiani F, Gelius-Dietrich G, Henze K, Kretschmann E, Richly E, Leister D, Bryant D, Steel MA, Lockhart PJ, Penny D, Martin W: A genome phylogeny for mitochondria among alpha-proteobacteria and a predominantly eubacterial ancestry of yeast nuclear genes. Mol Biol Evol 21:1643–1660 (2004). PDF

Wu M, Sun LV, Vamathevan J, Riegler M, Deboy R, Brownlie JC, McGraw EA, Martin W, Eßer C, Ahmadinejad N, Wiegand C, Madupu R, Beanan MJ, Brinkac LM, Daugherty SC, Durkin AS, Kolonay JF, Nelson WC, Mohamoud Y, Lee P, Berry K, Young MB, Utterback T, Weidman J, Nierman WC, Paulsen IT, Nelson KE, Tettelin H, O'Neill SL, Eisen JA: Phylogenomics of the reproductive parasite Wolbachia pipientis wMel: A streamlined genome overrun by mobile genetic elements. PLoS Biol 2:0327–0341 (2004). PDF

Atteia A, van Lis R, van Hellemond JJ, Tielens AG, Martin W, Henze K: Identification of prokaryotic homologues indicates an endosymbiotic origin for the alternative oxidases of mitochondria (AOX) and chloroplasts (PTOX). Gene 330:143–148 (2004). PDF

Timmis JN, Ayliffe MA, Huang CY, Martin W: Endosymbiotic gene transfer: Organelle genomes forge eukaryotic chromosomes. Nature Rev Genet 5:123–135 (2004). PDF

Martin W: Pathogenic archaebacteria: Do they not exist because archaebacteria use different vitamins? BioEssays 26:592–593 (2004). PDF

Graur D, Martin W: Reading the entrails of chickens: Molecular timescales of evolution and the illusion of precision. Trends Genet 20:80–86 (2004). PDF



Atteia A, van Lis R, Mendoza-Hernández G, Henze K, Martin W, Riveros-Rosas H, González-Halphen D: Bifunctional aldehyde/alcohol dehydrogenase (ADHE) in chlorophyte algal mitochondria. Plant Mol Biol 53:175–188 (2003). PDF

Henze K, Martin W: Essence of mitochondria. Nature 426:127–128 (2003). PDF

Martin W: Gene transfer from organelles to the nucleus: Frequent and in big chunks. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 100:8612–8614 (2003). PDF

Martin W, Rotte C, Hoffmeister M, Theissen U, Gelius-Dietrich G, Ahr S, Henze K: Early cell evolution, eukaryotes, anoxia, sulfide, oxygen, fungi first (?), and a tree of genomes revisited. IUBMB Life 55:193–204 (2003). PDF   

Gerhardt S, Echt S, Busch M, Freigang J, Auerbach G, Bader G, Martin WF, Bacher A, Huber R, Fischer M: Structure and properties of an engineered transketolase from maize. Plant Physiol 132:1941–1949 (2003). PDF

Martin W: The smoking gun of gene transfer. Nature Genet 33:442 (2003). PDF

Theissen U, Hoffmeister M, Grieshaber M, Martin W: Single eubacterial origin of eukaryotic sulfide:quinone oxidoreductase, a mitochondrial enzyme conserved from the early evolution of eukaryotes during anoxic and sulfidic times. Mol Biol Evol 20:1564–1574 (2003). PDF

Hoffmeister M, Martin W: Interspecific evolution: Microbial symbiosis, endosymbiosis and gene transfer. Environ Microbiol 5:641–649 (2003). PDF

Martin W, Borst P: Secondary loss of chloroplasts in trypanosomes. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 100:765–767 (2003). PDF

Martin W: Mitochondrial origins of human nuclear genes and DNA sequences. In: Copper DN (ed.) Nature Encyclopedia of the Human Genome. Nature Publishing Group, London, Vol.4, pp. 9–14 (2003).

Martin W, Russell MJ: On the origins of cells: A hypothesis for the evolutionary transitions from abiotic geochemistry to chemoautotrophic prokaryotes, and from prokaryotes to nucleated cells. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B 358:59–85 (2003). PDF



Samigullin TK, Yacentyuk SP, Degtyaryeva GV, Valieho-Roman KM, Bobrova VK, Capesius I, Martin W, Troitsky AV, Filin VR, Antonov AS: Paraphyly of bryophytes and close relationship of hornworts ans vascular plants inferred from analysis of chloroplast rDNA ITS (cpITS) spacer sequenes. Arctoa 11:31–43 (2002). PDF

Tielens AG, Rotte C, van Hellemond JJ, Martin W: Mitochondria as we don't know them. Trends Biochem Sci 27:564–572 (2002). PDF

El-Rabey HA, Badr A, Schäfer-Pregl R, Martin W, Salamini F: Speciation and species separation in Hordeum L. (Poaceae) resolved by discontinuous molecular markers. Plant Biol 4:567–575 (2002). PDF 

Itoh T, Martin W, Nei M: Acceleration of genomic evolution caused by enhanced mutation rate in endocellular symbionts. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 99:12944–12948 (2002). PDF

Martin W, Rujan T, Richly E, Hansen A, Cornelsen S, Lins T, Leister D, Stoebe B, Hasegawa M, Penny D: Evolutionary analysis of Arabidopsis, cyanobacterial, and chloroplast genomes reveals plastid phylogeny and thousands of cyanobacterial genes in the nucleus. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 99:12246–12251 (2002). PDF

Salamini F, Özkan H, Brandolini A, Schäfer-Pregl R, Martin W: Genetics and geography of wild cereal domestication in the Near East. Nature Rev Genet 3:429–441 (2002). PDF    

Schnarrenberger C, Martin W: Evolution of the enzymes of the citric acid cycle and the glyoxylate cycle of higher plants: A case study of endosymbiotic gene transfer. Eur J Biochem 269:868–883 (2002). PDF



Martin W, Hoffmeister M, Rotte C, Henze K: An overview of endosymbiotic models for the origins of eukaryotes, their ATP-producing organelles (mitochondria and hydrogenosomes) and their heterotrophic lifestyle. Biol Chem 382:1521–1539 (2001). PDF

Rotte C, Martin W: Does endosymbiosis explain the origin of the nucleus? Nature Cell Biol 3:E173–E173 (2001). PDF

Henze K, Schnarrenberger C, Martin W: Endosymbiotic gene transfer: A special case of horizontal gene transfer germane to endosymbiosis, the origins of organelles and the origins of eukaryotes. In: Syvanen M, Kado CI (eds.) Horizontal gene transfer. Academic Press London. pp 343–352 (2001).

Henze K, Martin W: How do mitochondrial genes get into the nucleus?Trends Genet 17:383–387 (2001). PDF

Krepinsky K, Plaumann M, Martin W, Schnarrenberger C: Purification and cloning of chloroplast 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase from spinach: Cyanobacterial genes for chloroplast and cytosolic isoenzymes encoded in eukaryotic chromosomes. Eur J Biochem 268:2678–2686 (2001). PDF

Schnarrenberger, C, Martin W: Pathways, Compartmentation and Gene Evolution. In: Xue G, Xue Y, Xu Z, Holmes R, Hammond GL, Lim HA (eds.) Studies of DNA, RNA, Enzymes and Proteins. World Sci Publ C, NJ, pp. 103–114 (2001).

Rujan T, Martin W: How many genes in Arabidopsis come from cyanobacteria? An estimate from 386 protein phylogenies. Trends Genet 17:113–120 (2001). PDF

Rotte C, Stejskal F, Zhu G, Keithly JS, Martin W: Pyruvate:NADP+ oxidoreductase from the mitochondrion of Euglena gracilis and from the apicomplexan Cryptosporidium parvum: A biochemical relic linking pyruvate metabolism in mitochondriate and amitochondriate protists. Mol Biol Evol 18:710–720 (2001). PDF

Martin W: Bioinformatik – Eine Schlüsseltechnologie. Jahrbuch der Heinrich-Heine-Universität Düsseldorf 2001, S. 157–182 (2001). PDF



Lange BM, Rujan T, Martin W, Croteau R: Isoprenoid biosynthesis: The evolution of two ancient and distinct pathways across genomes. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 97:13172–13177 (2000). PDF

Deane JA, Fraunholz M, Su V, Maier U-G, Martin W, Durnford DG, McFadden GI: Evidence for nucleomorph to host nucleus gene transfer: Light-harvesting complex proteins from cryptomonads and chlorarachniophytes. Protist 151:239–252 (2000). PDF

Martin W: Lateral gene transfer: Implications for genome evolution in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. In: McGraw-Hill Yearbook of Science and Technology, Genetics (2000).

Martin W, Salamini F: A meeting at the gene – Biodiversity and natural history. EMBO Rep 1:208–210 (2000). PDF

Dooijes D, Chaves I, Kieft R, Dirks-Mulder A, Martin W, Borst P: Base J originally found in kinetoplastida is also a minor constituent of nuclear DNA of Euglena gracilis. Nucleic Acids Res 28:3017–3021 (2000). PDF

Rotte C, Henze K, Müller M, Martin W: Origins of hydrogenosomes and mitochondria. Curr Opin Microbiol 3:481–486 (2000). PDF

Hansmann S, Martin W: Phylogeny of 33 ribosomal and six other proteins encoded in an ancient gene cluster that is conserved across prokaryotic genomes: Influence of excluding poorly alignable sites from analysis. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 50:1655–1663 (2000). PDF

Hannaert V, Brinkmann H, Nowitzki U, Lee JA, Albert M-A, Sensen CW, Gaasterland T, Müller M, Michels P, Martin W: Enolase from Trypanosoma brucei, from the amitochondriate protist Mastigamoeba balamuthi, and from the chloroplast and cytosol of Euglena gracilis: Pieces in the evolutionary puzzle of the eukaryotic glycolytic pathway. Mol Biol Evol 17:989–1000 (2000). PDF

Martin W: A powerhouse divided. Science 287:1219 (2000). PDF  

Martin W: Primitive anaerobic protozoa: The wrong host for mitochondria and hydrogenosomes? Microbiology (UK) 146:1021–1022 (2000). PDF

Adachi J, Waddell PJ, Martin W, Hasegawa M: Plastid genome phylogeny and a model of amino acid substitution for proteins encoded by chloroplast DNA. J Mol Evol 50:348–358 (2000). PDF

Liaud M-F, Lichtlé C, Apt K, Martin W, Cerff R: Compartment-specific isoforms of TPI and GAPDH are imported into diatom mitochondria as a fusion protein: Evidence in favor of a mitochondrial origin of the eukaryotic glycolytic pathway. Mol Biol Evol 17:213–223 (2000). PDF

Martin W, Scheibe R, Schnarrenberger C: The Calcin cycle and its regulation. In: Leegood RC, Sharkey TD, von Caemmerer S (eds.) Photosynthesis: Physiology and Metabolism (Advances in Photosynthesis Vol. 9). Kluwer Academic Publishers. pp 9–51 (2000).



Zuppini A, Barbato R, Bergantino E, Dainese P, Meggio F, Martin W, Mariani P: Ca2+ binding protein calreticulin in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii (Chlorophyta): Biochemical characterization differential expression during sexual reproduction and phylogenetic analysis. J Phycol 35:1224–1232 (1999). PDF

Martin W, Kowallik KV: Annotated English translation of Mereschkowsky's 1905 paper 'Über Natur und Ursprung der Chromatophoren im Pflanzenreiche'. Eur J Phycol 34:287–295 (1999). PDF

Samigullin TK, Martin W, Troitsky AV, Antonov AS: Molecular data from the chloroplast rpoC1 gene suggest a deep and distinct dichotomy of contemporary spermatophytes into two monophyla: Gymnosperms (including Gnetales) and angiosperms. J Mol Evol 49:310–315 (1999). PDF

Hansen A, Hansmann S, Samigullin T, Antonov A, Martin W: Gnetum and the angiosperms: Molecular evidence that their shared morphological characters are convergent, rather than homologous. Mol Biol Evol 16:1006–1009 (1999). PDF

Race HL, Herrmann RG, Martin W: Why have organelles retained genomes? Trends Genet 15:364–370 (1999). PDF

Martin W: A briefly argued case that mitochondria and plastids are descendants of endosymbionts, but that the nuclear compartment is not. Proc R Soc Lond B 266:1387–1395 (1999). PDF

Martin W: Tentative answers to four arbitrary questions about organelle genome reduction. In: Wagner E, Norman J, Greppin H, Hackstein JHP, Herrmann RG, Kowallik KV, Schenk HEA, Seckbach J (eds.) Endocytobiology VII: From Symbiosis to Eukaryotism. Geneva University Press, Geneva, pp. 291–302 (1999).

Stoebe B, Martin W, Kowallik KV: Chloroplast genomics: A new approach to study plastid genome evolution. In: Wagner E, Norman J, Greppin H, Hackstein JHP, Herrmann RG, Kowallik KV, Schenk HEA, Seckbach J (eds.) Endocytobiology VII: From Symbiosis to Eukaryotism. Geneva University Press, Geneva, pp. 303–317 (1999).  

Flechner A, Gross W, Martin W, Schnarrenberger C: Chloroplast class I and class II aldolases are bifunctional for fructose-1,6-biphosphate and sedoheptulose-1,7-biphosphate cleavage in the Calvin cycle. FEBS Lett 447:200–202 (1999). PDF    

Müller M, Martin W: The genome of Rickettsia prowazekii and some thoughts on the origin of mitochondria and hydrogenosomes. BioEssays 21:377–381 (1999). PDF

Martin W: Mosaic bacterial chromosomes: A challenge en route to a tree of genomes. BioEssays 21:99–104 (1999). PDF

Stoebe B, Hansmann S, Goremykin V, Kowallik KV, Martin W: Proteins encoded in sequenced chloroplast genomes: An overview of gene content, phylogenetic information, and endosymbiotic gene transfer to the nucleus. In:  Hollingsworth C, Batemann R, Gornall M (eds.) Advances in Plant Molecular Systematics. Francis and Taylor, Andover, pp. 327–352 (1999).



Embley TM, Martin W: A hydrogen-producing mitochondrion. Nature 396:517–519 (1998). PDF

Stoebe B, Martin W, Kowallik KV: Distribution and nomenclature of protein-coding genes in 12 sequenced chloroplast genomes. Plant Mol Biol Rep 16:243–255 (1998). PDF

Martin W, Müller M: Schweißte Wasserstoff den ersten Eukaryoten zusammen? Spektrum der Wissenschaft Juli-Ausgabe, S. 18–20 (1998). link

Martin W, Herrmann RG: Gene transfer from organelles to the nucleus: how much, what happens, and why? Plant Physiol 118:9–17 (1998). PDF

Nowitzki U, Flechner A, Kellermann J, Hasegawa M, Schnarrenberger C, Martin W: Eubacterial origin of nuclear genes for chloroplast and cytosolic glucose-6-phosphate isomerase from spinach: Sampling eubacterial gene diversity in eukaryotic chromosomes through symbiosis. Gene 214:205–213 (1998).  PDF

Martin W, Stoebe B, Goremykin V, Hansmann S, Hasegawa M, Kowallik KV: Gene transfer to the nucleus and the evolution of chloroplasts. Nature 393:162–165 (1998). PDF

Martin W, Müller M: The hydrogen hypothesis for the first eukaryote. Nature 392:37–41 (1998). PDF

Meyer-Gauen G, Herbrand H, Pahnke J, Cerff R, Martin W: Gene structure, expression in Escherichia coli and biochemical properties of the NAD+-dependent glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase from Pinus sylvestris chloroplasts. Gene 209:167–174 (1998).  PDF

Samigullin TH, Valiejo-Roman KM, Troitsky AV, Bobrova VK, Filin VR, Martin W, Antonov AS: Sequences of rDNA internal transcribed spacers from the chloroplast DNA of 26 bryophytes: Properties and phylogenetic utility. FEBS Lett 422:47–51 (1998). PDF

Navazio L, Nardi MC, Pancaldi S, Dainese P, Baldan B, Fitchette-Lainé A-C, Faye L, Meggio F, Martin W, Mariani P: Functional conservation of calreticulin in Euglena gracilisJ Eukaryot Microbiol 45:307–313 (1998). PDF

Martin W: Endosymbiosis and the origins of chloroplast-cytosol isoenzymes: A revision of the gene transfer corollary. In: Syvanen M, Kado C (eds.) Horizontal Gene Transfer. Chapman Hall, London, pp.363–379 (1998).



Martin W, Schnarrenberger C: The evolution of the Calvin cycle from prokaryotic to eukaryotic chromosomes: A case study of functional redundancy in ancient pathways through endosymbiosis. Curr Genet 32:1–18 (1997). PDF

Plaumann M, Pelzer-Reith B, Martin W, Schnarrenberger C: Multiple recruitment of class-I aldolase to chloroplasts and eubacterial origin of eukaryotic class-II aldolases revealed by cDNAs from Euglena gracilisCurr Genet 31:430–438 (1997). PDF

Münster T, Pahnke J, Di Rosa A, Kim JT, Martin W, Saedler H, Theissen G: Floral homeotic genes were recruited from homologous MADS-box genes preexisting in the common ancestor of ferns and seed plants. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 94:2415–2420 (1997). PDF

Schnarrenberger C, Martin W: The Calvin Cycle: A historical perspective. Photosynthetica 33:331–345 (1997).

Goremykin VV, Hansmann S, Martin W: Evolutionary analysis of 58 proteins encoded in six completely sequenced chloroplast genomes: Revised molecular estimates of two seed plant divergence times. Pl Syst Evol 206:337–351 (1997). PDF

de Souza S, Fischer W, Logsdon J, Long M, Martin W, Stoltzfus A: The origin and evolution of introns: A debate. HMS Beagle: A BioMedNet Publication, Vol. 1, Issue 1 (1997).



Ober D, Tholl D, Martin W, Hartmann T: Homospermidine synthase of Rhodopseudomonas viridis: Substrate specificity and effects of the heterologously expressed enzyme on polyamine metabolism of Escherichia coli. J Gen Appl Microbiol 42:411–419 (1996). PDF

Böhle UR, Hilger HH, Martin W: Island colonization and evolution of the insular woody habit in Echium L. (Boraginaceae). Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 93:11740–11745 (1996). PDF

Tholl D, Ober D, Martin W, Kellermann J, Hartmann T: Purification, molecular cloning and expression in Escherichia coli of homospermidine synthase from Rhodopseudomonas viridisEur J Biochem 240:373–379 (1996). PDF

Baalmann E, Scheibe R, Cerff R, Martin W: Functional studies of chloroplast glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase subunits A and B expressed in Escherichia coli: Formation of highly active A4 and B4 homotetramers and evidence that aggregation of the B4 complex is mediated by the B subunit carboxy terminus. Plant Mol Biol 32:505–513 (1996). PDF

Flechner A, Dreßen U, Westhoff P, Henze K, Schnarrenberger C, Martin W: Molecular characterization of transketolase (EC active in the Calvin cycle of spinach chloroplasts. Plant Mol Biol 32:475–484 (1996). PDF

Martin W, Mustafa A-Z, Henze K, Schnarrenberger C: Higher-plant chloroplast and cytosolic fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase isoenzymes: Origins via duplication rather than prokaryote-eukaryote divergence. Plant Mol Biol 32:485–491 (1996). PDF

Martin WF: Is something wrong with the tree of life? Bioessays 18:523–527 (1996). PDF

Bohlmann J, Lins T, Martin W, Eilert U: Anthranilate synthase from Ruta graveolens: Duplicated AS alpha genes encode tryptophan-sensitive and tryptophan-insensitive isoenzymes specific to amino acid and alkaloid biosynthesis. Plant Physiol 111:507–514 (1996). PDF

Pahnke J, Bobrova V, Goremykin V, Antonov A, Troitsky A, Martin W. Utility of rDNA internal transcribed spacer sequences from the inverted repeat of chloroplast DNA in pteridophyte molecular phylogenetics. In: Camus JM, Gibby M, Johns RJ (eds.) Pteridology in Perspective. Royal Botanical Gardens, Kew, pp. 217–230 (1996).

Martin W, Henze K, Kellerman J, Flechner A, Schnarrenberger C: Microsequencing and cDNA cloning of the Calvin cycle/OPPP enzyme ribose-5-phosphate isomerase (EC from spinach chloroplasts. Plant Mol Biol 30:795–805 (1996). PDF

Goremykin V, Bobrova V, Pahnke J, Troitsky A, Antonov A, Martin W: Noncoding sequences from the slowly evolving chloroplast inverted repeat in addition to rbcL data do not support gnetalean affinities of angiosperms. Mol Biol Evol 13:383–396 (1996). PDF

Brinkmann H, Martin W: Higher-plant chloroplast and cytosolic 3-phosphoglycerate kinases: A case of endosymbiotic gene replacement. Plant Mol Biol 30:65–75 (1996). PDF



Nowitzki U, Wyrich R, Westhoff P, Henze K, Schnarrenberger C, Martin W: Cloning of the amphibolic Calvin cycle/OPPP enzyme D-ribulose-5-phosphate 3-epimerase (EC from spinach chloroplasts: Functional and evolutionary aspects. Plant Mol Biol 29:1279–1291 (1995). PDF    

Henze K, Badr A, Wettern M, Cerff R, Martin W: A nuclear gene of eubacterial origin in Euglena gracilis reflects cryptic endosymbioses during protist evolution. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 92:9122–9126 (1995). PDF

Donath M, Mendel R, Cerff R, Martin W: Intron-dependent transient expression of the maize GapA1 gene. Plant Mol Biol 28:667–676 (1995). PDF

Schnarrenberger C, Flechner A, Martin W: Enzymatic evidence for a complete oxidative pentose phosphate pathway in chloroplasts and an incomplete pathway in the cytosol of spinach leaves. Plant Physiol 108:609–614 (1995). PDF 

Kruse S, Martin W, Wehe M, Reski R: An open reading frame (ycf11) is evolutionary conserved from cyanobacteria to the plastid DNAs of archegoniates and gymnosperms, is modified in the plastid DNAs of dicots, and is not plastome encoded in monocots. J Plant Pysiol 146:258–262 (1995). PDF

Bohlmann J, DeLuca V, Eilert U, Martin W: Purification and cDNA cloning of anthranilate synthase from Ruta graveolens: Modes of expression and properties of native and recombinant enzymes. Plant J 7:491–501 (1995). PDF



Martin W: Conservation and function of introns in plant glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase genes. In: Cho MC, Saedler (eds.) Proc. 2nd Korean-German Joint Symposium in Plant Biotechnology. Seoul University Press, Seoul, pp. 39–55 (1994).

Badr A, Martin W, Jensen U: Chloroplast DNA restriction site polymorphism in Genisteae (Leguminosae) suggests a common origin for european and american lupines. Plant Syst Evol 193:95–106 (1994). PDF

Henze K, Schnarrenberger C, Kellermann J, Martin W: Chloroplast and cytosolic triosephosphate isomerases from spinach: Purification, microsequencing and cDNA cloning of the chloroplast enzyme. Plant Mol Biol 26:1961–1973 (1994). PDF

Meyer-Gauen G, Schnarrenberger C, Cerff R, Martin W: Molecular characterization of a novel, nuclear-encoded, NAD+-dependent glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase in plastids of the gymnosperm Pinus sylvestris L. Plant Mol Biol 26:1155–1166 (1994). PDF

Müller SB, Rensing SA, Martin WF, Maier U-G: cDNA cloning of a Sec61 homologue from the cryptomonad alga Pyrenomonas salina. Curr Genet 26:410–414 (1994). PDF

Böhle UR, Hilger H, Cerff R, Martin WF: Non-coding chloroplast DNA for plant molecular systematics at the infrageneric level. In: Schierwater B, Streit B, Wagner G, Desalle R (eds.) Molecular Ecology and Evolution: Approaches and Applications. Birkhäuser, Basel. pp. 391–403 (1994). Pubmed

Jansson S, Meyer-Gauen G, Cerff R, Martin W: Nucleotide distribution in gymnosperm nuclear sequences suggests a model for GC-content change in land-plant nuclear genomes. J Mol Evol 39:34–46 (1994). PDF

Hofmann CJB, Rensing SA, Häuber MM, Martin WF, Müller SB, Couch J, McFadden GI, Igloi GL, Maier U-G: The smallest known eukaryotic genomes encode a protein gene: Towards an understanding of nucleomorph functions. Mol Gen Genet 243:600–604 (1994). PDF

Liaud M-F, Valentin C, Martin W, Bouget F-Y, Kloareg B, Cerff R: The evolutionary origin of red algae as deduced from the nuclear genes encoding cytosolic and chloroplast glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenases from Chondrus crispusJ Mol Evol 38:319–327 (1994). PDF

Cerff R, Martin W, Brinkmann H: Origin of introns – early or late. Nature 369:527–528 (1994). PDF

Kersanach R, Brinkmann H, Liaud M-F, Zhang D-X, Martin W, Cerff R: Five identical intron positions in ancient duplicated genes of eubacterial origin. Nature 367:387–389 (1994). PDF



Kolukisaoglu HÜ, Braun B, Martin WF, Schneider-Poetsch HAW: Mosses do express conventional, distantly B-type-related phytochromes: Phytochrome of Physcomitrella patens (Hedw.). FEBS Lett 334:95–100 (1993). PDF

Martin W, Brinkmann H, Savonna C, Cerff R: Evidence for a chimeric nature of nuclear genomes: Eubacterial origin of eukaryotic glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase genes. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 90:8692–8696 (1993). PDF

Barakate A, Martin W, Quigley F, Mache R: Characterization of a multigene family encoding an exopolygalacturonase in maize. J Mol Biol 229:797–801 (1993). PDF

Martin W, Lydiate D, Brinkmann H, Forkmann G, Saedler H, Cerff R: Molecular phylogenies in angiosperm evolution. Mol Biol Evol 10:140–162 (1993). PDF

Somerville CC, Jouannic S, Martin WF, Kloareg B, Loiseaux-de Goër S: Secondary structure and phylogeny of the chloroplast 23S rRNA gene from the brown alga Pylaiella littoralisPlant Mol Biol 21:779–787 (1993). PDF

Martin W, Jouannic S, Loiseaux-de Goër SL: Molecular phylogeny of the atpB and atpE genes of the brown alga Pylaiella littoralis. Eur J Phycol 28:111–113 (1993). PDF

Martin W, Nock S, Meyer-Gauen G, Häger K-P, Jensen U, Cerff R: A method for isolation of cDNA-quality mRNA from immature seeds of a gymnosperm rich in polyphenolics. Plant Mol Biol 22:555–556 (1993). PDF



Martin W, Somerville CC, Loiseaux-de Goër S: Molecular phylogenies of plastid origins and algal evolution. J Mol Evol 35:385–404 (1992). PDF



Pisabarro AG, Martin WF, Peterson PA, Saedler H, Gierl A: Molecular analysis of the ubiquitous (UQ) transposable element system of Zea maysMol Gen Genet 230:201–208 (1991). PDF

Assali N-E, Martin WF, Sommerville CC, Loiseaux-de Goër S: Evolution of the Rubisco operon from prokaryotes to algae: Structure and analysis of the rbcS gene of the brown alga Pylaiella littoralisPlant Mol Biol 17:853–863 (1991). PDF



Menssen A, Höhmann S, Martin W, Schnable PS, Peterson PA, Saedler H, Gierl A: The En/Spm transposable element of Zea mays contains splice sites at the termini generating a novel intron from a dSpm element in the A2 gene. EMBO J 9:3051–3057 (1990). PDF

Martin W, Lagrange T, Li Y-F, Bisanz-Seyer C, Mache R: Hypothesis for the evolutionary origin of the chloroplast ribosomal protein L21 of spinach. Curr Genet 18:553–556 (1990). PDF



Martin W, Gierl A, Saedler H: Angiosperm origins. Nature 342:132 (1989). PDF

Martin W, Gierl A, Saedler H: Molecular evidence for pre-Creataceous angiosperm origins. Nature 339:46–48 (1989). PDF

Quigley F, Brinkmann H, Martin WF, Cerff R: Strong functional GC-pressure in a light-regulated maize gene encoding subunit GAPA of chloroplast glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase: Implications for the evolution of GapA pseudogenes. J Mol Evol 29:412–421 (1989). PDF

Martinez P, Martin W, Cerff R: Structure, evolution and anaerobic regulation of a nuclear gene encoding cytosolic glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase from maize. J Mol Biol 208:551–565 (1989). PDF



Quigley F, Martin WF, Cerff R: Intron conservation across the prokaryote-eukaryote boundary: Structure of the nuclear gene for chloroplast glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase from maize. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 85:2672–2676 (1988). PDF



Brinkmann H, Martinez P, Quigley F, Martin W, Cerff R: Endosymbiotic origin and codon bias of the nuclear gene for chloroplast glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase from maize. J Mol Evol 26:320–328 (1987). PDF



Martin W, Cerff R: Prokaryotic features of a nucleus-encoded enzyme: cDNA sequences for chloroplast and cytosolic glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenases from mustard (Sinapis alba). Eur J Biochem 159:323–331 (1986). PDF